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Australia-RU » TWO BASIC CATEGORIES OF TOTEMISM
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TWO BASIC CATEGORIES OF TOTEMISM

 

As specifies Alkin [1954, with. 140-151], all these versions totemism can be carried to two categories: totemism social and totemism ceremonial, or cult.

 

In the first the basic attention is given a social factor. Differently, connections of the person with totemism are based on his belonging to the certain social association, and mutual relations between the people belonging to one such association, have totemic painting. Social totemism often plays a part at the introduction into marriage and at a choice of partners in the sexual relations. Usually belonging to social totemic to association is determined matrilined by the invoice of an origin. Marriage between the man and the woman having same totemic connection, is considered as wrong. The requirement totemic exogam can have a mythological substantiation. Besides from the persons connected with certain social totems, the special behaviour is expected. It is not authorized to them to kill and use in food these totems (animals or a plant) as it is considered, that at the person his totem one "clayі". To totem can concern as to the senior brother or the sister or even as to the head, the patron. Application of the term "clayі" specifies close connections, affinity between the person and his totem.

 

In case of ceremonial, or cult, totemism position other. Totem it is not considered "cray" or "ь ёюь", and it is usual him do not forbid to eat. This version of totemism has been found out in natives of a greater part of Australia. Usually cult of totem are defined prtrilined by the invoice of an origin though, as is known from sources, on island Cape York peninsula exists matrilined cult of totemism [Sharp, 1939, with. 453 454; 1943, with. 69]. To observance exogam cult of totemic groups it is not given great value. The husband and the wife even can prefer to have the same totemic connections, as in a number of areas of the Western desert [Bernd, 1959а, with. 100]. In territory belonging everyone tribe there are sacred places which associate with the essences lived there during mythical times. It can be sources, rocks, hills, trees, caves which walls are covered by the figures made ochra or blood. Each of these places is under protection of the several adults, completely initiated men who have received these duties on a birth or on conception. These men are keepers of the myths connected with the given place or several places, and supervise or spend corresponding ceremonies.

 

Before to address to brief consideration of mythology, and then ceremonies (see VII), it is necessary to remind chapter, that, considering totemism, usually it is necessary to mean some the central moments. Totemism not always demands exogam, exogam happens more often is connected with social, instead of with cult of totemism. In the past value exogam totemic groups strongly exaggerated. The same it is possible to tell about an interdiction to use in food of totemic animals or totemic plants. A line of examples of such interdictions is resulted Hauitt [1904]. In many cases, however, in particular in cult of totemism, even when the native identifies itself with totem, totemic animals or totemic plants it is freely possible to eat meat, and to this eating totem is not given any sacramental or ritual value.

 

It is important to remember also, what not all food taboo (and they exist in each community of natives), which people are obliged to observe during the crisis periods of a life or during carrying out of the certain ceremonies, etc., connected with totemism. Moreover, it is impossible to consider attitudes of an individual from his totem separately: totem is a symbol of more extensive circuit of associations. The person and his totem, in representation of natives, possess that we can name their common sacred essence, not only by virtue of special connection between them, but also by virtue of that this connection only a part of wider relations of the person with mythical essences or totemic ancestors. Totem serves as a link between the world of alive people and the world of myths. Through this link the person incorporates to the Eternal dream and in the certain sense belongs to the World of a dream. Moreover, mythical essences are sometimes embodied in alive people, and totem symbolizes this representation. Shtrelov [1947, with. 92-93] stops on this question, retelling among other history about an ancestor - the melliferous ant lived in Liaba, " wanted to be embodied in the woman who in its honour has taken a name -Labarinia ". In Balgo the person so speaks about the totem: "This is I, I made that and that " In the Western desert the dancer representing totem during a ceremony, not simply plays a role, but it is considered really this totem. In many cases totem - influence the nature, animals or plants - are considered necessary for a material well-being and a physical survival of people. Sharp [1943, with. 69] has offered following definition: "totem there can be any element of a physical either spiritual environment existing in the present, or the separate phenomenon, or, that happens more often, the whole classes or kinds of things, actions, conditions or qualities which constantly generating and by virtue of it are considered timeless ". Totemism, as he said, represents " formal relationship " Between people and "this is vision elements physical encirclement ". Radcliff-Brown [1952, with. 131] considered, that is dangerous to be content with the brief formulation: Australian totemism it is impossible to determine only as "mechanism by means of which the unity between the person and nature" is established;. It only one side of a question. Totemism as he believes, " is vision of the Universe as moral or social order, that is a basis of any religious world outlook ". Totemism is a philosophy, a complex of the symbols, traditional expression of system of the values existing in a society of natives.

 

 

 

 

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