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Australia-RU - All about Australia » History of Australia

The Aboriginals of Australia known as the Australian natives, have the most long cultural history in the world which has begun still in during last glacial age. Though scientists till now and do not refer in opinions, but it is considered, that the first people have arrived to Australia from Indonesia approximately 70000 years ago. The first immigrants whom archeologists later have named "robusta coffees", because of them big-bonned constitutions, in 20000 people-graceful, ancestors of the Australian natives have replaced.

 

Europeans have started to master Australia in 16 century, the Portuguese seafarers were followed by Danes who were replaced by Englishmen, under leadership of pirate William Dampera. Captain James Cook has made navigation along all east coast in 1770, having stopped off in Gulf Botany on a way. Having rounded Cape York, he has declared Australia possession of the Great Britain and has named it New Southern Wales.

 

In 1779 Joseph Benks (the naturalist from Cook's team) has suggested the government of the Great Britain to solve a problem overflowing of prisons by sending prisoners to the New Southern Wales. In 1787 in Gulf Botany has thrown an anchor the First Fleet under command of Captain Arthur Filipa which became the first governor of a colony. By 11 ships of fleet there were 750 immigrants, men and the women, four teams of seamen and a stock of the foodstuffs for two years. Philip has arrived to Gulf Botany on January, 26th, but soon he has transferred a colony in Sydney to a bay where water and the ground were better. For newcomers the New Southern Wales was an awful place and threat of famine hung above a colony of 16 years.

 

Next decades in Australia began to appear free people, and 1850 in the country gold deposits have been opened. The huge stream of emigrants and a sharp shake-up of economy have irrevocably changed colonial social structure. Natives have been survived from the grounds which were necessary for colonists for an agriculture and extraction of minerals. Industrial revolution in England demanded a plenty of raw material, both Australian agricultural and natural resources were uncontrolledly spent to satisfy this need.

 

Australia became the state when on January, 1st, 1901 separate colonies have formed federation (though because of it many cultural and trading communications with England have interrupted). The Australian armies were at war on the side of the Great Britain in boorskaya war, the First world war and the Second world war. However, the role of the USA in protection of the Australian territories against the Japanese intrusion during the Second world war has called into question durability of this union. Australia has in turn supported the USA during the Korean and Vietnamese wars in Asia.

 

After war in the country the stream of immigrants which their majority were not British has rushed. Immigrants have rendered the big influence on development of the country. Having recovered culture and having expanded attitude of Australia. In post-war years in Australia the economic boom as on its raw material and minerals were a great demand was observed. In 1980th Australia has accepted huge amount of the Asian refugees, especially from Vietnam. Socially and economically Australia tries to correspond to the place in Asia. For Australia questions respublicanism, general acceptance of the Act about the Native name (accepted in 1993), legal regulation concerning refugees and an official apology from the government for infringements of the rights and suffering of natives are actual. Unfortunately, till now many natives continue to live in awful conditions.

 

 

 

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