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CONCEPT OF SACRED

 

In the majority of groups of the Australian natives exist or earlier existed the special words designating those beliefs and connected with them of action which are considered extremely important. The sense and value of these terms are various in different areas, no less than the area of the phenomena covered by them is various. However these words, at least in those areas, data on which are authentic enough, have also something the general value: they concern to the actions made in certain sequence and having quite certain orientation, it means that to ceremonies which usually refer to as terms "religiousх" or "sacred ": maraiin in the West coast Arnhemland; marein or doyou in northeast coast Arnhemland; daragu or duedue in East Kimberley; tuerunga in a tribe arayada [Shtrelov, 1947, p.84-86]. These terms serve in many communities of natives for a designation of actions, persons, subjects or oral narrations and songs, than beliefs, as those is more often.

 

In languages of natives with which we have got acquainted, we did not manage to find out a special word for expression of concept "believe", but Shtrelov [1947, p. 71] marks, that in language of a tribe aranda such term exists - tnakama.

 

Spending the sacred ceremonies, carrying out various actions with sacred subjects, telling myths, singing songs, natives hardly thought of why all these actions and subjects have sacred character, and hardly subjected to its doubts. They simply considered all this by itself understood, and fulfilment of corresponding ceremonies was quite enough for high-grade participation in a religious life. Looking from, we could tell, that natives did not try to penetrate into the nature of belief of the person and them did not interest, how much religious representations of each separate person correspond to representations of others. Was considered quite sufficient if it in the certain cases behaves definitely. We have no the information on, whether there were among natives sceptics. There, where there was an alien influence - business another.

 

Beliefs and the basic religious representations of natives pass from father to son almost exclusively in the oral form, and, naturally, in them there are any changes what the great value was given to their steady form. When any separate changes are supposed or admit, it is supposed, that they do not mention the basic contents of beliefs and ceremonies of group, and concern only minor moments, details. At performance of sacred ceremonies, retelling and performances of mythological plots the basic attention is given an invariance, accuracy: that is made in the present, should reproduce precisely that happened in the past when bases of human existence have been once and for all incorporated all. This period " looking ", or " creation " is known under different names, however at all tribes with it rather similar representations having certain influence for today are connected. Acting in the certain, ordered image, according to the rules established by mythical essences operated during this period, people can support contacts to these essences, use that "power", which these essences "gives " till now. In each group of natives there are various subjects which possess, in representations of natives, supernatural properties, give to their ceremonial activity special efficiency and serve as though as focus at storing and transfer of corresponding religious representations.

 

In all Big desert Victoria for a designation "period of looking " the term dueguba, or duegurba is used; in area of ridge Rolinson - a thought; in area Balgo - duemanggani; in east part of Kimberley - ngarunggami; around Lagrange and Brum - mubary; in a tribe uvgarinin - unzud [Rlkin, 1954, p. 178]; in a tribe aranda - ald'eringa [Spencer and Gillen, 1938]; in a tribe diery - mess; in a tribe vuradieri - maradal or galvagi, and the period previous these referred to nzerganbu - "begin of everything "; in a tribe yaraldy it was gugal, and in Northeast Arnhemland - vongar. All these terms were translated differently - as " Period of Looking ", "Anciont's time ", "Dreams ", " Time of Dreams", "Timeless the period of Dreams ", etc.

 

Under "Timeless the period of Dreams" that the mythical ancestors which have begun everything, exist in the present and in the non-material form, in the form of spirits is meant, they and all with them connected will exist in the future. The term "Timeless" has this value. The term "Dreams" it is unsuccessful enough, but has appeared as direct translation of one of corresponding words of language of natives.

 

If the same word is used for a designation of usual dreams and for the certain time period, it does not mean yet, that people do not divide between these two concepts. Concept "Dreams" it is not connected in any way with usual dreams, however, as for sleeping really everything, that it dreams, and for the believer actions mythical doer Time of dreams are real all.

 

Further, the term "Timeless " means "out of time" (not having time). Representation about "timeless ", about the world existing outside of time, it is characteristic for religious beliefs. In a daily practice natives use a lot of categories of time: days, nights, the moon, etc. The item At them is concepts of the direct and close present, last (historical, pseudo-historical), the future (close and removed), etc. Radcliff-Brown [1945, p. 38-41] has offered the term "Begin of the World", or "Begin of Being ". This term is unsatisfactory, as is static and, certainly, communicates only with the past.

 

Radcliff-Brown fairly marked, that associated with this epoch of an essence are not ancestors as in representations of natives genealogic they are not connected with living people. Sometimes, however, it is considered, that some of them distances a life or are involved in occurrence of primogenitors of modern natives. In this sense quite naturally to speak about them as about ancestors or, more truly, as about ancestry.

 

Ayr mythologies it is considered as the period in which samples of human behaviour on all the subsequent times were pawned, laws for people were established. It is the last, sacred past which is not has left for ever. Lived on the ground during this period essences-созидатели made the certain actions and already never will repeat them in the future, however, their influence is still felt, and its consequences can be used by the people repeating their actions. These representations are summarized in expression "Timless period of Dreams ", emphasizing belief that the mythological past lives in the present and will live in the future.

 

In the certain sense the past till now here, in the present, and equally it - a part of the future. Spirits of the died people live and in the present, and will live eternally. Mythical essences do not die. They continue to live, though both in other forms and in other places. In days of dreams they existed as an essence human, but it was only one of forms in which they can be embodied. They continue to exist, while people submit to their instructions I behave under the laws established for them right at the beginning. "Live " these essences and a life of natives are connected and depend from each other. Differently, there is a close connection between a religious life and other aspects of a life of a society as a whole.

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